Friday, September 7, 2018

Low birth weight and its causes

Low Birth Weight: Babies with birth weight of less than 2500grams irrespective of gestational age may be called as low birth weight.
There are a wide range of causes of low birth weight. Some of them are mentioned below.

Placental Causes:
a.      Fetal distress
b.     Multiple gestation
c.      Erythroblastosis fetalis
Uterine Causes:
a.      Bicornuate uterus
b.     Incompetent Cervix
Maternal Causes:
a.      Teenage mother
b.     Pre eclampsia
c.      Chronic medical illness
d.     Infections
Other Causes:
a.      Pre mature rupture of membrane (PROM)
b.     Polyhydramnios
c.      Diabetes
d.     Rh incompatibility
More over any factor that causes Intra uterine growth retardation can lead to a low birth weight.

Thursday, August 9, 2018

Complication of Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS)

Though SICS is a popular and cheap method of cataract extraction and posterior chamber intra ocular lens implantation in the developing and under developed countries, it’s not free of complication. Actually, no surgical procedure  is free of complications.
The possible complications of SICS are as below:
Per operative complications of SICS:
a)     Endothelial injury
b)    Injury to iris and iris prolapse
c)     Hyphaema
d)    Posterior capsular tear

SICS Complication

Post operative complications of SICS:
a)     Raised IOP (Intra Ocular Pressure)
b)    Iris prolapse
c)     Wound leak
d)    Acute bacterial endopthalmitis

Steps of small incision cataract surgery (SICS)

SICS also known as small incision cataract surgery, is a popular method of cataract extraction in under developed country. Every year through the world many people suffer from cataract. Many of them are from under developed country. SICS is a solution for them as because this method of cataract extraction is very cheap. The steps of cataract extraction and posterior chamber intra ocular lens implantation are as below;
a)     Superior rectus suture is passed to fix the eye in downward gaze
b)    Conjunctival flap and exposure of sclera
c)     Homeostasis is achieved by applying gentle and just adequate field cautery
d)    Sclero corneal tunnel incision


e)     Side port entry of about 1.5mm valvular corneal incision is made at 9 o’ clock position
f)      Anterior capsulotomy
g)     Hydrodissection
h)    Nuclear management – Prolapse and delivery of the nucleus outside
i)       Aspiration of the cortex
j)       IOL (Intra Ocular Lens ) implantation
k)    Removal of the viscoelastic material
l)       Wound closure